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In his report, the rooting percentage was found to be Rooting percentage can be said to be one of the most important morphological traits that have been examined in the researches. The main focus of the works conducted so far has been the treatments that can increase rooting percentage.

The effects of auxins on rooting and plant growth have been so far widely demonstrated [ 77 ]. These hormones have been proven to increase rooting percentage in the seeds of Robinia pseudoacacia [ 78 ], Pseudotsuga menziesii [ 79 ], Oryza sativa [ 80 ], Pisum sativum [ 81 ] and many other plant species.


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IBA is one of the most commonly used and studied hormones. Its impact on rooting is continuous and extremely high [ 82 ]. There are many works showing that IBA treatments alone are highly effective in increasing rooting percentage. Polat et al. In another work, it was revealed that the rooting percentage of 6. In the same work, the rooting percentages of Similarly, there are studies reporting that IBA significantly increased rooting percentage in sage cuttings, and the rooting percentage of Naphthalene acetic acid, which has a significant effect on rooting, was used in this report.

It is a synthetic hormone that has been used in orcharding for many years for thinning heavy fruit set. With the effect of thinning, fruit size and quality can be increased [ 64 ]. However, the positive effect of NAA on rooting was also proven by many reports. In a study, the rooting percentage of GA3 is mostly produced by fermentation from the fungus Gibberella. Today, there are approximately known GA molecules, more than 50 found in plant seeds.

GA3 is the most widely used one for commercial purposes [ 64 ]. There are many reports examining the effect of GA3 on rooting such as the one by Hepaksoy [ 89 ] on Prunus avium L. Carr, the study by Sevik et al. Although it has not been determined that GA3 has a significant effect in many species, there are studies showing that it increases rooting percentage to a considerable extent [ 61 , 94 ]. This work found that hormone treatments affected root number to a considerable extent. The root number, which was 1.

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The findings of this report are in conformity with other works in the literature. Sevik and Turhan [ 95 ] reported that all hormone treatments increased the number of roots, and they found that the average root number of 0. They also reported that the average root number of 1. The reports conducted on other plant species also show that root number can be increased with hormone treatments. Sevik and Guney [ 93 ] reported that the root number of 2.

Yildiz [ 96 ] also reported that the root number of 1.

Mass spectrometry and immunoassay: how to measure steroid hormones today and tomorrow

Similarly, there are studies revealing that IBA treatment can increase the number of roots four to five times in peach, plum and cherry cuttings [ 85 ]. In the report by Polat et al. The findings of this study also reveal that hormone treatments have affected the root length of the plants to a considerable extent, increasing the root length of However, more importantly, root lengths were found to be higher than those in the control groups after all hormone treatments.

Therefore, the treatments can be said to have a positive effect on the root length. The works conducted show that the root length can be increased to 2. Therefore, the treatments can be said not to have such a huge effect on stem formation as to make a significant difference. Similar results were also obtained from L.

The stem height of 7. Likewise, Turhan [ 65 ] reported that the stem number of 0. However, it was indicated that, in L. Units of Measure and Standard Abbreviations Use the international system of units SI where possible, or other metric units. If non-metric units are mentioned, please give their SI equivalent in parentheses. Temperature should be expressed in degrees Celsius e.

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Applications of Fluorine in Medicinal Chemistry | Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

Steroid Nomenclature Standards The 3 major classes of mammalian sex steroids — androgens, estrogens, and progestins or progestagens or gestagens — correspond to the well-defined androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors. The principal bioactive sex steroid and natural ligand for each class is testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone, respectively. Estrogen s and progestin s are classes of steroids, not steroids themselves.

Synthetic steroids or extracts of biological origin of each class may also have agonist, antagonist or mixed bioactivity in one or more classes. Synthetic steroids or extracts can be considered as members of a generic steroid class androgens, estrogens, progestins , but are distinct from the natural cognate ligand itself.

Therefore, the terms androgens, estrogens, and progestins or progestagens or gestagens should be used when referring to the class of hormones, whereas when a specific natural or synthetic steroid is being used or assayed the particular compound must be specified. Subsequently, generic or trivial names or letter abbreviations, but not trade-names, should be used. The accepted trivial names include cholesterol, estrone, 17 estradiol, estriol, aldosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 5 dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, androstenedione, pregnenolone, progesterone, corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, cortisone, cortisol.

Trivial names may be modified by prefixes indicating substituents as in hydroxyprogesterone for hydroxypregnene-3,dione , double bonds as in 7-dehydrocholesterol for 5,7-cholestadienol and epimeric configurations of functional groups provided the locus of epimerization is indicated as in 3-epiandrosterone for 3-hydroxyandrostanone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.

Vitamins and hormones. Volume 58 : advances in research and applications

Mechanism of action of Mullerian inhibiting substance. Computed tomography of the pituitary gland. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; ; 15— Endocrinology and metabolism. New York: McGraw-Hill; — Data from: Medical device-regulation process: review of safety notices and alerts. Dryad Digital Repository Deposited 2 January JPEG, although not preferred, will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Fonts should be embedded in the file.

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