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Gerald C. Ccd Arrays, Cameras, and Displays. Publisher: Society of Photo Optical , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.
View all copies of this ISBN edition:. From Book News : Not a design book, but an source of information on the features and specifications most often reported in data sheets on charge-coupled devices, which are used in high-definition television for program production, consumer camcorders, electronic still cameras, optical character readers including bar-code scanners and fax machines, and other applications. Former Library Learn more about this copy.
Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought. The order in which that image data for the pixels are obtained is therefore hard-wired and cannot be changed. There are actually different architectures of CCD sensors, e. Due to the substantial technological developments in the areas of both CMOS and CCD sensor chips, their relative merits have changed with time and can depend substantially on what detailed devices are chosen.
For example, while CMOS sensors were originally known to be less sensitive and offering lower image quality, there are now CMOS sensors which offer quite good image quality and quite similar fill factors and sensitivity. Some general differences can nevertheless be recognized:. Monochrome cameras can simply use a single photodetector per pixel. For color images, several more sophisticated techniques have been developed:. There are image sensors which are combined with an image intensifier based on a microchannel plate detector a kind of photomultiplier in front of the CCD or CMOS chip.
This allows the operation of such intensified sensors e. However, the quantum efficiency will normally be lower, and the image noise is increased compared with operation of an ordinary sensor at higher light levels. For imaging of extremely low light levels, one may also use single-photon avalanche photodiodes , used in Geiger mode. They can now be made even in large silicon-based CMOS detector arrays.
Detectors: CCDs for Life-Science Applications
For example, they are suitable for single-photon 3D imaging via time-of flight measurements. Although the technology of CCD and CMOS sensor chips has been driven to a very high level within several decades, it is essentially limited to silicon. Most devices are used with visible light, some also for the near infrared or for the ultraviolet region. It is often desirable to achieve sufficient signal strength with a limited amount of light in order to limit the necessary exposure time.
Therefore, one tries to obtain a high quantum efficiency of the detection. However, some of the light is often lost because the light-sensitive parts do not cover the full pixel area. That problem of a limited fill factor can be reduced either by minimizing the size of light-insensitive parts or by properly directing the incident light to the sensitive regions, e.
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The latter approach, however, can have detrimental side effects, such as an increased directionality of the sensitivity the relevance of which depends on the used optical camera design and smear effects due to optical cross-talk between different pixels. Certain wedge structures have been developed which are better in that respect. Another approach is back side illumination through a substrate of reduced thickness.
CMOS sensors are no more necessarily worse in terms of sensitivity than CCD sensors, despite a tentatively larger amount of chip area used for non-light-sensitive parts. Note that the term sensitivity is often erroneously used instead of responsivity. The sensitivity also depends on image noise, which can have different origins:. For highest sensitivities, e. With proper optimization of the whole system, photon noise limited performance can be achieved. Image sensors are available with a wide range of formats.
The ratio of width to height is often or corresponding to frequently used image formats. However, other formats like and are also available for special purpose cameras. The height and the width of the pixels should normally be identical. The pixel size can be somewhat smaller than the pixel pitch; not the whole chip area is active area. Obviously, the pixel spacing should be small enough to exploit the full resolution potential of the optical part, while on the other hand it does not make sense to make it significantly finer, since that would not only increase the fabrication cost but also unnecessarily increase the amount of data to be handled and possibly also reduce the fill factor and thus the efficiency.
Image sensors which have an integrated analog-to-digital converter e. CMOS sensors , have a limitation of the dynamic range according to the number of bits.
Selecting a CCD Camera for Spectroscopic Applications
The actual dynamic range may be smaller, if the lowest bits are meaningless. For sensor chips with analog output CCD , the dynamic range is limited by noise. Depending on the details of the electronics, CCD or CMOS chips can be highly linear within a certain range of light intensities, or exhibit substantial nonlinearities. The type and quality of the used charge amplifier can be important for that aspect.
For excessive illumination beyond the full well capacity of a pixel, there can be blooming effects by overflow of carriers to neighbored pixels. Cross-talk means that light hitting one pixel also produces some response on our pixels. This may happen in the form of optical cross-talk, e. Also, cross-talk can occur in the electronics, particularly at high light levels. That may not always be immediately notice, but even consumer cameras should of course not exhibit a substantial number of dead pixels.
The time for readout of a complete image frame can be substantial, particularly for a high-resolution CCD sensor with many millions of pixels. That limits the possible frame rate of a video camera, for example. Therefore, the multi-tap technique has been developed for CCD sensors, where different parts of the image are transmitted in parallel through two, four or even more outputs.
CMOS sensors are generally faster, and there are versions for several thousands images per second. For a photo camera , for example, it is important that the used image sensor fits well to the used photographic objective. For example, objectives are optimized for a certain image sensor format. Also, the incidence angle of light on the sensor can depend on the objective, and some sensors e.
See also: cameras , photo cameras , imaging , photodiode arrays , focal plane arrays and other articles in the categories photonic devices , optoelectronics , vision, displays and imaging. If you like this article, share it with your friends and colleagues, e. Virtual Library.
Ccd Arrays Cameras Displays by Holst Gerald - AbeBooks
Sponsoring this encyclopedia:. Sorry, we don't have an article for that keyword! They are used in various kinds of cameras and for scanners, for example in digital photo cameras , in video cameras for television, consumer devices, surveillance, industry, etc. Photodiode Arrays If only a relatively small number of pixels is required, a photodiode array can be used. Some general differences can nevertheless be recognized: CMOS sensors can be more easily integrated with additional microelectronics on the same chip, providing functionality like dark current compensation and other signal processing.
Even single-chip digital camera sensors are possible; this allows the realization of extremely compact cameras. CMOS cameras are generally cheaper to fabricate, particularly because less additional electronics are required. CMOS technology requires only a single operation voltage e.
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CMOS chips offer substantially faster readout. The fixed pattern noise of CMOS sensors, resulting from deviations between the electronic parts for different pixels, is still tentatively higher than for CCDs. Also, pixel defects are more frequent. For color images, several more sophisticated techniques have been developed: One can use dichroic beam splitters for directing the red, green and blue components of light to three separate detector chips.
Such three-CCD cameras provide color images at the full resolution and good color separation, also with optimum quantum efficiency, but at a substantial cost and with a less compact setup. That principle is used for some industrial cameras and professional video cameras, but usually not for consumer photo cameras.