This might be also the reason why truly single phase high entropy phases have been realized only for a few compositions so far. Introducing a non-equiatomic mixing rule would provide a much larger compositional space for synthesizing high entropy alloys without intermetallic phases.
A third set of advantages associated with lean multi-component compositions is a practical one, such as reducing variations in vapor pressure typically occurring in multi-component systems, less segregation and improved casting properties.
Another aspect that should be realized is that XRD, EBSD and atom probe tomography analysis increasingly reveals that many of the high entropy alloys that have been studied so far are actually not single phase materials but often contain intermetallic phases. The occurrence of one or often more intermetallic phases, sometimes with nanoscopic size or at grain boundaries, is not only a thermodynamic or kinetic issue. The presence of intermetallic phases typically deteriorates mechanical key properties such as ductility, fatigue resistance and toughness.
Alloys containing intermetallic phases, therefore, often reveal inferior properties compared to corresponding single-phase alloys of similar, yet non- equiatomic composition. An additional point supporting non-equiatomic multi-component alloys in the form of high entropy steels is to better exploit fcc phase stabilization and strain hardening effects associated with interstitial elements, specifically C which has been well studied in the context of TWIP steel systems.
In the light of these considerations we study different multi-component high entropy steels that make use of increased configurational entropy for stabilizing a single-phase homogeneous massive solid solution fcc matrix. Some of the alloys discussed contain as little as 50 at. High entropy steels based on the quinary Fe-Mn-Al-Si-C system overlap for the case of a maximized Al content in part with the recently introduced class of low density steels.
In these alloys the size and high stability of the fcc phase field created by Fe, Mn, and C prevails even when adding a high amount of soluble Al.
When calculating the VEC for the fcc high entropy steels presented here, including also compositions presented in earlier publications, we find typical values for the VEC of It is interesting to note that we find smaller VEC numbers typically for our current non-equiatomic Fe-Mn based high entropy steels when considering only the substitutional elements Fe, Mn, Al and Si and neglecting the VEC contribution provided by the interstitial elements. When also considering the additional electrons donated by interstitials, for instance by the very high C content, the alloys reach VECs above 8.
This means that the VEC criterion suggests that fcc solid solution high entropy steels can be designed when using interstitial elements. This pathway opens a further alloy design option for high entropy alloys. Another important aspect in that context is to define the fcc phase stability that is actually targeted.
From the experience with highly alloyed fcc steels it is well known that typically not the stable fcc matrix but rather a slightly instable fcc matrix provides beneficial strain hardening properties.
More specific, when aiming at fcc solid solutions where coupled deformation-transformation effects such as TRIP and TWIP are to be exploited as mechanisms for equipping these alloys with additional strain hardening capacity, the target is actually not to achieve a thermodynamically stable but rather an instable matrix. This enables deformation-induced confined phase transformations such as martensite or twinning.
This has been recently also demonstrated for the case of high entropy alloys. This means that, when translating this idea back into the VEC guideline, it might be a design criterion to target a VEC value of just 8 but not much higher. One has to consider though that the current high entropy alloy literature suggests that the VEC criterion alone is an insufficient design criterion. Instead, reliable phase predictions require full thermodynamic calculations whenever possible. High Entropy Steels. What is the role of interstitial elements in High Entropy Steels? Eagle Lake itself is 90 miles long with over 68, acres of water.
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